Building Background – Benefits of Using Sentence Frames to Build Background Knowledge

Even as native English speakers we sometimes struggle with just the right word to explain, describe, clarify, or elucidate what we want to convey. We always understand more than we can speak. One of best ways to engage English language learners (ELL) in actively acquiring new material is to connect their background knowledge to the new topic. So, let's give them some brackets to help them use language.

We will be most successful if we remember to always start with the concept or theme.

# 1 When beginning a new topic, let pairs pretest one another. Write this sentence frame on a board, overhead, or PowerPoint, or make your own blackline master with the sentence frame repeated four to six times on a page so you can cut them into strips to hand out to the pairs.

A: "Do you know anything about (topic)?

B: "I'm not sure, but I do know _____."

Egypt "I think it could be _____ because I learned _____."

After students copy the sentence frame, or use the handy strips, erase the word 'topic' in the first sentence. Write in the topic for today. It may be a theme, or a characteristic, or an emotion.

  • Read the sentence frame aloud to the students.
  • Read it again, and this time the students should repeat after you.
  • Give them sixty seconds (yes, really time it, using the entire sixty seconds) to look at the word and think about everything they know about it. No talking. No writing. Just thinking.
  • Next, let students use another 60 seconds (yep, time it again) to write words and phrases to capture their thoughts about the topic.
  • Finally it is time to talk.

This is time well-spent. Your lesson will be stronger and more relevant. Your students will be engaged. You can continue to spiral the content, connecting it to what they already know or previously learned. The ELs will build confidence as they are encouraged to think, write, and talk about what they already know.

# 2 Plan more opportunities for pupil interaction. Here's another sentence starter than can be used with individuals, then shared in small groups.

This new theme of _____ reminds me of a time in my life when _____.

# 3 Make sentences frames with the word 'because' to have students explain connections between previous learning and the new topic.

"I think the next topic will be _____ because our last lesson was _____."

This kind of sentence frame encourages prediction according to prior learning. This is a good time to show the students how much they have learned and how it all links together.

# 4 After reading a story, a sentence frame can be used to let students speak with a partner. You can expand this speaking activity to include a second partner, like elbow- partners and across-the-aisle partners. Provide a sentence frame:

For example, "I think _____ is a hero, because _____."

# 5 Ask students to make comparisons to concrete objects in linguistic ways. Hand out objects to students and give them some time to think and write again, before speaking.

Try this sentence frame with a variety of objects:

I am like this _____ (Snickers bar), because I am _____ (nutty).

I am like this _____ (Matchbox Ferrari), because I am _____ (small and fast).

I am like this _____ (red pencil) because I am _____ (my face is red because I have to talk aloud).

The objects you use can be almost anything!

Now that your imagination is raising up, make up some brackets to use tomorrow.

  • Think about how you would want the smartest student in the school to speak.
  • Then use your target vocabulary and academic language to make a sentence frame.
  • Encourage your ELLs to speak in complete sentences in all conversations in the classroom. This will increase their academic vocabulary, which maximizes learning, and builds confidence.
  • Kids like to feel smart!

Connotation and Denotation in Literature

As long as literary usage is concerned, the term "denotation" means primary significance or reference of a word; Whereas "connotation" of a word means a range of secondary or associated significations that the word implies. For instance; "Home" denotes the house in which one lives whereas it connotes intimacy and privacy.

In broader sense, the connotation of a word consist of a range of meanings or significations and which one the word really connotes that depends on the context in which the word is used. As far as poetry is concerned, the words share concepts with both denotative as well as connotative meanings. And it's up to the reader how to evaluate the words. In this respect, George Herbert's poem "Virtue" needs to be taken into consideration:

Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright,
The bridal of the earth and the sky …

The word "bridal" has both connotative as well as denotative meanings. The denotation of the word means that a union between human beings. The word stands for "ground" and functions as a metaphor to facilitate union of the earth and the sky. On the other hand, the connotation of the word "bridal" is sacred or ceremonial. Moreover, the meaning of the word is similar to "marriage".

The second example I wish to offer is a portion from John Keats's "Ode to a Nightingale" where the connotative meaning of the word gets changes according to the way it is spelled:

Charmed magic casements, opening on the foam
Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn,

You will notice that the use of "faery" instead of "fairy" evokes the connotation of antiquity and wonderful world of Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" .

These are some of the examples to see how connotation and denotation overlaps! You can only distinguish the meaningings according to the content in which words are used. As far as the language of literature is concerned, you'll see the presence of both and it is up to the reader to appreciate the work of art considering the proper connotative or denotative meaning.

In short, denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, or the dictionary definition. Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are attached to a particular word or the emotional suggestions associated with that word. The connotative meanings of a particular word exist in conjunction with the denotative meanings. So, both share distinct features as long as meanings of a word is concerned.

Pet Insurance Horse Coverage

Many people board horses and often pay high expenses to cover the pets. Dogs, cats, and other household pets often go without care because the owners cannot afford to pay the medical treatment and medicines to care for the pets. Horses are more expensive than common pets, but the laws state that these creatures need medical treatment and vaccines, thus what can an owner do. Owners can take out pet insurance policies that will cover the pets 80/20 in most instances. Horses undergo various different ills than common pets, thus, special coverage is needed for these beautiful creatures.

The Internet has a wealth of resources that specialize in pet insurance, including horses’ coverage. Few owners may have other types of pets that will need specialized coverage, including goats, cows, hermits, pigs, mice, guinea pigs and so forth. While most insurance coverage plans will not cover many of the different household pets, few will offer coverage to common pets, including horses.

Horses are high maintenance critters that require special coverage. Thus, the Internet is open to suggestions, making available horse policy that will offer a generous amount of coverage to owners. Few policies will cover dental work, including coverage for both pet and owner. The policy will offer “personal accidental” coverage, and so forth. The downside is these insurance policies often cost more in premiums than standard insurance policies. Since we are dealing with a huge high maintenance animal, the premiums are higher, since the company will be paying out a fortune for vet care.

One of the common laws regarding horses that apply to owners in various states is the Equine Warning Laws. These laws protect horses and owners against liability, damage, and so forth. The owner is responsible to put up Warning Signs to warn the visitors that accidents/incidents can happen and direct them to safety, plus telling them, they are not reliable if the visitor fails to adhere to the warnings. Not every state has this law to protect homeowners; therefore, the owner would be wise to look for Pet insurance that will cover liability. Pet insurance coverage for horses will often cover the pet and the objects used for the pets needs, including horse trailers. The policies will cover theft, damage, loss, and so forth.

What horse insurance covers

Each policy is different, but few company’s will cover liability, death, stables, personal accidents, theft, riding liability, ‘loss of entry fees,’ hire in for horse maintenance, dental, straying, saddles, tack, vets charges, and so forth. Some of the leading claims filed for horse care are death accident/illness, vet fees for accident/illness, tack and saddler fees. Few providers offer comprehensive coverage to horses extending the coverage to more than forty different states. Thus, pet insurance for horses can offer advantages to owners that transport their horse out of state for shows, trades, and so forth.

Filing Claims

Many of the claims are similar to standard forms, however few companies’ present claims that target the specific incident and/or accident, including illness. For example, if you horse is ill then the company may send a form for that specific need. The company will recommend that you immediately contact the company via the toll-free hotline provided to you and immediately seek treatment for your animal. After you are done at the vet, the company will encourage you to make contact with the company. The claim forms are often downloadable online, thus making it convenient and easy to get the claims to the insurer immediately. Of course, you must go through the same procedures as standard health insurance, by sending receipts to the company. The hotline is setup so that you can get immediate disbursement if necessary.

Advisory: horse insurance may come with higher premiums if your animal is a high-risk. If your horse is used at Rodeos, Racing and so forth, there may be additional coverage needed, and you should expect to pay higher premiums. Few insurance companies may offer generous rates even if your pet is high-risk, so again shopping around are the best solution for getting great rates and comprehensive coverage.

Porter’s Five Forces Model And Internet Competition

According to Porter’s Five Forces Model, in my opinion, competition has increased overall as a result of the internet and e-Commerce. The internet and IT has made it possible to both focus on the top and bottom lines and market share is expanded and costs are cut. Many products and services exist just online, major companies have gone online to successfully augment the brick and mortar corporations, and the playing field is all the way to edges of cyberspace, wherever that is. We will further evaluate this stepping through all five forces.

Buyer power is higher when buyers have more choices. Businesses are forced to add value to their products and services to get loyalty. Many loyalty programs include excellent services that customers demand on-line. Customers want to solve their problems and many times they are more successful on-line than on-phone. Also, we see internet savvy businesses springing up offering more valuable goods and services at lower costs. Now with the advent of eBay, many people are assuming roles as drop shippers. Individuals can have a thriving business selling goods of larger companies without having to carry inventory.

Supplier power is higher when buyers have fewer choices from whom to buy. As mentioned earlier, drop shipping has increased the amount of suppliers available. All an individual has to do is form and agreement to sell products for the company. The company takes care of all the logistics. The same is true of associates programs that Amazon.com and Google.com offer. Associates allow a webmaster to earn money by recommending products from others. This increases supplier offerings.

Threat of substitute products or services is high when there are many product alternatives. This is different than having many suppliers. Examples of alternatives are exchanging brand names, substituting credit card capabilities, and looking at better values from cheaper sources. The internet allows this with the “global economy”. I can substitute my product by purchasing from companies overseas where labor, services and products are cheaper, but of comparable quality.

Threat of new entrants is high when it is easy for new competition to enter the market. Well, what have we been talking about? Now, small operations can open shop with less than $10.00 per month and make a lot of money. As inventive as people are, there are always opportunities to do improve a product or service or just create and sell something new. Recently, many new entrants have made even more money authoring Ebooks that tell others how to do what they did. Rivalry among competitors is high when competition is more intense within industries.

On-line book stores and catalog companies are an excellent example. Amazon.com and Barnesandnoble.com are very competitive. However, there are many also smaller niche affiliate bookstores that when combined take a great deal of market share. They offer even more competition. However, both major bookstores have used IT to create value for their customers. These values include associates programs, ease of payment and shipping and many, many others.

The internet offers avenues of competition to existing companies and opportunities for start ups. Now businesses can enter the market on-line with few barriers to entry. Porter’s Five Forces Model can help demonstrate the attractiveness of starting your on-line business. A business person should use the model to identify competition, make a plan, and implement the process.